Posts Tagged ‘Integrity’

The literary structure of 1 Samuel 11:14-13:1

The literary structure of 1 Samuel 8-13:1, plus Deuteronomy 17 and 1 Samuel 8-13:1

This morning we’re coming to the conclusion of the story of how Israel came to have kings for leaders. It all began in chapter 8 when Israel demanded a king and amazingly God allowed it.

  • After a time, God chose Saul – and so Samuel privately anointed him as prince.
  • Then Saul was chosen by lots, making God’s choice of him public.
  • Then Saul passed the leadership test by delivering Jabesh-gilead from the Ammonites.
  • And finally today he is officially installed as king.

Our passage today is 11:14-13:1. It’s too long to go through verse by verse, so I will summarize parts of it, but I encourage you to follow along in your bibles.

A change from judges to kings

Saul becomes king – 11:14-15

11:14Then Samuel said to the people, “Come, let us go to Gilgal and there renew the kingdom.” 15So all the people went to Gilgal, and there they made Saul king before the Lord in Gilgal. There they sacrificed peace offerings before the Lord, and there Saul and all the men of Israel rejoiced greatly.

In these first verses Samuel calls all Israel together to Gilgal, a central location used for religious and political meetings. And v. 15 says, “There they made Saul king before the Lord.”

And then, after having tried before in chapter 8, Samuel actually gives his farewell speech to Israel.

Samuel’s farewell – 12:1-2

12:1And Samuel said to all Israel, “Behold, I have obeyed your voice in all that you have said to me and have made a king over you. 2And now, behold, the king walks before you, and I am old and gray; and behold, my sons are with you. I have walked before you from my youth until this day.

He has walked before them as a leader for many years and is “old and gray.” And now Saul walks before them as the new king. Samuel will remain as a priest and prophet, but will no longer be the national leader or judge.

And then he goes on to establish his integrity as a leader – 12:3-6

3Here I am; testify against me before the Lord and before his anointed (that is, Saul). Whose ox have I taken? Or whose donkey have I taken? Or whom have I defrauded? Whom have I oppressed? Or from whose hand have I taken a bribe to blind my eyes with it? Testify against me and I will restore it to you.”

And in vs. 4-6 they all affirm that he has indeed been a righteous leader.

 4They said, “You have not defrauded us or oppressed us or taken anything from any man’s hand.” 5And he said to them, “The Lord is witness against you, and his anointed is witness this day, that you have not found anything in my hand.” And they said, “He is witness.” 6And Samuel said to the people, “The Lord is witness, who appointed Moses and Aaron and brought your fathers up out of the land of Egypt.

Can you imagine doing this at your work? Or even at church or with family?  This is a challenge to all of us to live godly lives of integrity and character, like Samuel. This is especially important for leaders who have power and can misuse it to take advantage of others.

Samuel is also drawing a contrast here between the role of a judge, who doesn’t “take” things, to that of a king who will “take” things (same word), as he warned them in chapter 8:11-17. (Notice the contrast also between Samuel and his sons – 8:3)

Next, Samuel goes through their history to make the point that God is able to deliver – vs. 7-12

7Now therefore stand still that I may plead with you before the Lord concerning all the righteous deeds of the Lord that he performed for you and for your fathers. 8When Jacob went into Egypt, and the Egyptians oppressed them, then your fathers cried out to the Lord and the Lord sent Moses and Aaron, who brought your fathers out of Egypt and made them dwell in this place. 9But they forgot the Lord their God. And he sold them into the hand of Sisera, commander of the army of Hazor, and into the hand of the Philistines, and into the hand of the king of Moab. And they fought against them. 10And they cried out to the Lord and said, ‘We have sinned, because we have forsaken the Lord and have served the Baals and the Ashtaroth. But now deliver us out of the hand of our enemies, that we may serve you.’ 11And the Lord sent Jerubbaal and Barak and Jephthah and Samuel and delivered you out of the hand of your enemies on every side, and you lived in safety.

  • He recalls how God raised up Moses to deliver them from Egypt
  • Then they sinned by turning to false gods and idols.
  • And so God gave them over to their enemies for instance Sisera, the Philistines, and Moab (as told in the book of Judges).
  • But in each case God heard their cry and delivered them. He raised up Jerubbaal (or Gideon), Barak, Jephthah and Samuel – and delivered them.

God has been faithful to save. And after Egypt, they only needed deliverance because of their unfaithfulness.

Now the point of this history lesson is that a king is not necessary to deliver Israel; God is able. God was their only king and there was no lack in God that they needed a human king. But they asked anyway.

12And when you saw that Nahash the king of the Ammonites came against you, you said to me, ‘No, but a king shall reign over us,’ when the Lord your God was your king.

It was their lack of trust in God to deliver, that led them to ask for a king. Nevertheless, despite all of this God can use kingship for his own purposes – 12:13-15

13And now behold the king whom you have chosen, for whom you have asked; behold, the Lord has set a king over you. 14If you will fear the Lord and serve him and obey his voice and not rebel against the commandment of the Lord, and if both you and the king who reigns over you will follow the Lord your God, it will be well. 15But if you will not obey the voice of the Lord, but rebel against the commandment of the Lord, then the hand of the Lord will be against you and your king.

God can use kingship. This is why he allows it, and tells Samuel to obey their voice (chapter 8).

Instead of everyone doing what is right in their own eyes (as the book of Judges talks about) a king has the power to lead the people to obey. Although, just as surely, he can use that power to lead them to disobey.

And besides, even with a king, the question is always the same, “Will Israel follow God or false gods?” Their covenant relationship with God has not changed. And so if they do what is right, God will watch over them; but if they do not, they will be judged.

Next we have a miracle that again establishes the point that God is able to deliver – 12:16-18

16Now therefore stand still and see this great thing that the Lord will do before your eyes. 17Is it not wheat harvest today? I will call upon the Lord, that he may send thunder and rain. And you shall know and see that your wickedness is great, which you have done in the sight of the Lord, in asking for yourselves a king.” 18So Samuel called upon the Lord, and the Lord sent thunder and rain that day, and all the people greatly feared the Lord and Samuel.

At the time of the wheat harvest there was no rain, so this was unusual. And, of course, Samuel called for it and God acted right away. Also remember, they often looked to false gods who were supposed to be in control of the rain and thunder. But God shows here that he is the only true God.

So both from their history, including under Samuel’s leadership and from this miracle it should be clear that there is no lack on God’s part to save.

But how often do we, in the face of God’s history of faithfulness and our own present experiences of this, still distrust God? God’s faithfulness is beyond question, we are the questionable ones, because we are often faithless. But still we don’t trust God.  We think that there is some lack in God, when God alone is more than sufficient.

This miraculous sign leads the people acknowledge their sin – 12:19

19And all the people said to Samuel, “Pray for your servants to the Lord your God, that we may not die, for we have added to all our sins this evil, to ask for ourselves a king.”

Their lack of faith in God and their demand for a king was evil. As Samuel said above “your wickedness is great” in asking for a king when God was already taking care of you. And they confess this here plainly and they ask for Samuel’s prayers to avert judgment.

The next verses speak to Samuel’s continuing role among them – 12:20-25

20And Samuel said to the people, “Do not be afraid; you have done all this evil. Yet do not turn aside from following the Lord, but serve the Lord with all your heart. 21And do not turn aside after empty things that cannot profit or deliver, for they are empty. 22For the Lord will not forsake his people, for his great name’s sake, because it has pleased the Lord to make you a people for himself. 23Moreover, as for me, far be it from me that I should sin against the Lord by ceasing to pray for you, and I will instruct you in the good and the right way. 24Only fear the Lord and serve him faithfully with all your heart. For consider what great things he has done for you. 25But if you still do wickedly, you shall be swept away, both you and your king.”

Samuel is no longer a judge, but he is still a prophet and priest. And as such he admonishes them:

  • He tells them to serve the Lord with all their heart.
  • They are to turn away from “empty things” that is, worthless idols and false gods.
  • And he warns them – If they don’t obey – they and their king will be swept away.

He also promises to pray for them and teach them. In vs. 23 he says, “Moreover, as for me, far be it from me that I should sin against the Lord by ceasing to pray for you, and I will instruct you in the good and the right way.”

And then our passage ends with a statement about Saul’s reign – 13:1

 13:1Saul was thirty years old when he became king, and he reigned over Israel forty-two years. (NIV)

The Hebrew text literally says, “Saul was years old when he became king, and reigned two years.” It appears that the text did not survive intact. Some later versions of the Septuagint have 30 years for his age. Acts 13:21 says that Saul reigned for 40 years. (And in one place Josephus agrees with this). So this would be a rounded number for the possibly original number of 42.

Let me end by taking note of –

How great God’s grace is

God’s patience in this whole episode is truly amazing. The reason they needed to be delivered from various enemies in the first place was their unfaithfulness to God. They sinned and God gave them over to their enemies, just as their covenant agreement stipulated. In other words, it was their fault.

But they had the audacity to blame God for not being able to deliver them. They think God is inadequate to take care of them. They think God is at fault.

But then look at God’s patience and grace. Samuel says in v. 20, “Do not be afraid . . ..” God is not going to judge them for this. They will still be judged for other things, like turning to idols, as Samuel says here, but God doesn’t judge them for this.

And then in v. 22 he says, “For the Lord will not forsake his people, for his great name’s sake, because it has pleased the Lord to make you a people for himself.” Despite what they have done, God is still going to be their God and they will be his people.

  • He does this for his own reputation – since they bear his name.
  • And because it pleases him that they be his people. That is, because he loves his people.

They reject him as king, but he continues to accept them as his people. They wrongly look down on him and his ability to save, but he bears with their very real failures here.  They slander his ability to save, but he gives them words of encouragement. This is a truly amazing example of grace.

And in this episode we see God’s heart revealed; a heart of love for his people. And God has this same love for his people today; for us. And in this we can rejoice. What a great God and King we serve!

Read Full Post »

Series: Paul to the Thessalonians

We’ve begun a series on Paul to the Thessalonians and we are working our way through 1 Thessalonians. We are letting the text take us wherever it goes, so whatever it talks about is going to be what we talk about. Today we are up to chapter 2:1-12 and, as we will see, the overall topic here is ministering with integrity.

Let’s remember briefly –

The situation in Thessalonica

Paul, Silvanus and Timothy had come to Thessalonica and had success in establishing a church. But they were chased out of town before they were ready to leave. And the new believers there were suffering persecution.

Traveling charlatans?

In our passage today, Paul is concerned about his reputation. There was no shortage of hucksters and scam artists in that day who would go from town to town seeking fame or fortune by conning people.

And it doesn’t help Paul’s image that he was forced out of town, just as he was in Philippi before this. And certainly a part of the persecution the Thessalonians were suffering was from people, maybe even family and friends, saying things like – “You got taken!” “He’s just another wandering quack.” “What’s wrong with you?”

This context explains two features of this passage. 1) The use of the phrase – “the gospel of God.” It’s used three times in this passage (vs. 2, 8, 9), but only three times in all of Paul’s other writings. And also, the word “God” is used nine times in these verses.

His point becomes clear in 2:13, when he says, you received the gospel “not as the word of men but as what it really is, the word of God.” He’s saying that they are not peddling myths, human wisdom or sophistry. They are sharing God’s own good news.

This background also explains 2) The trial technique he uses here (also see 1:5, etc.) It’s as if Paul and his team are on trial, and Paul is acting as a defense lawyer, calling on the Thessalonians as witnesses:

  • you yourselves know – v. 1
  • as you know – v. 2
  • as you know – v. 5
  • you remember – v. 9
  • you are witnesses – v. 10
  • even as you know – v. 11

He also calls on God as a witness, swearing two testimonial oaths in verses 5 and 10.

The purpose of this is to remind them that he, Silas and Timothy were not like these wandering hucksters. They had integrity as they ministered among the Thessalonians

The character of their ministry in Thessalonica

You have a handout that illustrates how these verses are carefully organized. I invite you to keep that handy. Let’s look at this a section at a time. First off –

Their ministry was not in vain. “1For you yourselves know, brothers and sisters, that our coming to you was not in vain.”  In the preceding verses in chapter 1, he has just noted how others have reported about their dramatic conversions. So he can certainly appeal here to their knowledge of this.

He’s saying, our preaching produced real results – you!

Next the focus shifts to their character. “2But though we had already suffered and been shamefully treated at Philippi, as you know, we had boldness in our God to declare to you the gospel of God in the midst of much conflict.” Even though they had suffered in Philippi and there was conflict in Thessalonica, they had “boldness in our God” to preach the gospel.

They were people of character, who, with God’s help, stood strong amidst opposition.

“3For our appeal does not spring from error or impurity or any attempt to deceive . . ..” Here we have three false charges as to their motivation for preaching. Error or perhaps better “deceit,” impurity, or “impure motives” and an attempt to deceive or trick them. These are the kinds of accusations commonly made against charlatans. But none of these characterize Paul and his team.

Next he talks about their identity, or who they are. “. . . 4but just as we have been approved by God to be entrusted with the gospel, so we speak, not to please man, but to please God who tests our hearts.” They are not hucksters, but rather people approved by God and entrusted with his message. And that is why they speak.

People can say what they want about them, but they preach to please God, not people. What people say is not their concern. What God says is their concern.

Next he comes back to their character.Carrying on the thought of not speaking to please people he says, “5For we never came with words of flattery, as you know, nor with a pretext for greed— God is witness. 6Nor did we seek glory from people, whether from you or from others . . ..” Again, three false charges often made against hucksters. They did not flatter them, that is just say nice things to gain their favor or to manipulate them. Their preaching was not for the sake of greed – to take their money. He denies this strongly with an oath, “God is witness.” That is, may God curse me if what I say isn’t true. And they didn’t seek glory or honor through their preaching. This might be money related. To be honored can also mean to be paid. Or it might simply mean to be praised by them.

“. . . though we could have made demands as apostles of Christ.” Literally it says, “we could have been weighty.” Like we say today they could have thrown their weight around asking for support.

The right to receive support from their hearers comes from Jesus himself (Luke 10:7). But Paul specifically gives up this right, at least with regard to new believers, only accepting support later (Philippians 4:16).

And he does this precisely to avoid being seen as just another wandering charlatan. This was a part of his missionary strategy – a cultural adaptation for taking the gospel to the Gentiles. As he says in 1 Corinthians 9:21, to the Gentiles I became like a Gentile “that I might win” them to the gospel.

“7But we were gentle among you, like a nursing mother taking care of her own children. 8So, being affectionately desirous of you, we were ready to share with you not only the gospel of God but also our own selves, because you had become very dear to us.” They were not demanding of them – trying to take from them,  money or honor. Rather, they came to share – the gospel and themselves, not take.

Paul uses the image of a nursing mother caring for her own children to describe their ministry. They were gentle, caring and affectionate. Their love for the Thessalonians comes out clearly, they were “very dear” to them.

Their ministry was not a burden. “9For you remember, sisters and brothers, our labor and toil: we worked night and day, that we might not be a burden to any of you, while we proclaimed to you the gospel of God.” In 2 Thessalonians 3:7 Paul even says, “nor did we eat anyone’s bread without paying for it.”

They went out of their way not to be a burden to them. They gave up their rights to support and worked day and night.

Then finally Paul brings it all together in a closing statement. “10You are witnesses, and God also, how holy and righteous and blameless was our conduct toward you believers.” Here he focuses on what they were like among them. He gives three descriptions – they were holy, righteous and blameless.

He again he calls on both them and God as witnesses. As the Scripture says, let everything be established by the testimony of two or three witnesses (Deuteronomy 19:5).

“11For you know how, like a father with his children, 12we exhorted each one of you and encouraged you and charged you to walk in a manner worthy of God, who calls you into his own kingdom and glory.” Here we have three things that relate to what they did among the Thessalonians. They exhorted, encouraged and charged them.

We also have another parental image. Now Paul and team are like a father giving loving moral instruction and guidance. Specifically they taught them “to walk in a manner worthy of God.” Why? So that they will be ready to enter God’s “own kingdom and glory” on the final day.

Ministering without integrity?

Christian leaders are to be examples. Because their behavior speaks as loudly as their words. And when their behavior doesn’t fit their message, the message is discredited and God is discredited.

Some in Thessalonica sought to impugn Paul’s integrity in order to undermine his work and to unsettle the new believers.  But it wasn’t possible, because he was a man of integrity. They knew what he was like.

Sadly, we all know of others who have failed in this area:

– Priests or pastors who take advantage of their trust to sexually abuse those in their charge.

– Pastors who will say anything to “succeed” defined as having more and more people come to hear them.

– “Faith” healers who fake it, playing on people’s emotions and needs, while taking their money.

– Celebrity teachers who are in it to make money, selling books and getting rich – (even though Jesus said, “freely you have received, freely give” – Matthew 10:8).

There is an epidemic of a lack of integrity in American Christianity today. There is misuse of power, raw greed, the idolatry of “success,” and the acceptance of the celebrity culture of the world around us. And this disgraces God and it destroys the credibility of the message we preach. As Paul says in Romans 2:24, “The name of God is blasphemed among the (unbelievers) because of . . .” these things.

Christian witness without integrity?

Well, this doesn’t just apply to Christian leaders. Each of you are to be ministers for God in your daily lives. You are to be witnesses! Each of you bear on you the name of Jesus.

Does your life match up with your Christian confession? Do you engage in questionable business practices? Are you seen as a lazy or irresponsible worker?

Do you engage in obviously un-Christian behavior – drunkenness? Sexual immorality? Not paying your taxes? Slander? Lying? Breaking your word? Bullying?

Let me put it like this, when people find out that you are a Christian do they say, really? How can that be? What kind of a church do they go to? Or, what hypocrisy! Or do they say, yeah, that makes sense. I can see that.

Paul says in Philippians 2:15,  “. . . be blameless and innocent, children of God without blemish in the midst of a crooked and twisted generation, among whom you shine as lights in the world.”

Have integrity in your Christian witness. Be a light in the midst of a crooked and twisted generation. Instead of dishonor, let your life bring honor and glory to God.

William Higgins

Read Full Post »