Posts Tagged ‘Mark 11’

For the last two weeks we have been in Mark 11 working our way toward vs. 22-25. Here’s a quick review:

  • With his temple demonstration, where he brought everything to a halt, Jesus symbolically indicated that the temple will cease to operate.
  • With his cursing of the fig tree, which then died, Jesus symbolically indicated that the temple will be judged and destroyed.

Also we saw how Jesus is building another temple, made without hands. And although the old one was condemned for not being a house of prayer, this new one, which includes all who are connected to Jesus – is to be a true house of prayer.

22 And Jesus answered them, “Have faith in God. 23 Truly, I say to you, whoever says to this mountain, ‘Be taken up and thrown into the sea,’ and does not doubt in his heart, but believes that what he says will come to pass, it will be done for him. 24 Therefore I tell you, whatever you ask in prayer, believe that you have received it, and it will be yours. 25 And whenever you stand praying,forgive, if you have anything against anyone, so that your Father also who is in heaven may forgive you your trespasses.”

 Connections between our verses and the fig tree story

First of all, the disciples were greatly impressed that the fig tree had withered. Wow, Jesus! How did you make the fig tree die? How is that even possible? And so  1. Jesus teaches them how to exercise similar power through faith and prayer. (In Matthew’s version this is even more clear.)

But on another level this teaching on prayer has to do with the underlying question, 2. If the temple God’s house of prayer is destroyed as is pictured by the dead fig tree . . . how can we pray? This is hard for us to get. But the temple was the place where God heard their prayers.

And prayers that were “in” or “toward” the temple were thought to be especially effective. It was seen as the gateway to heaven; the place where heaven and earth met so that you had access to God’s throne here on earth (Sharyn E. Dowd).

As the Lord said about the temple in 2 Chronicles 7:15, “Now my eyes will be open and my ears attentive to the prayer that is made in this place.” (Also Jonah 2:7; Psalm 28:2; 2 Samuel 22:7) And this is what Solomon prayed for, when he dedicated the temple in 1 Kings 8:30. He said to God, “And listen to the plea . . . of your people Israel, when they pray toward this place. And listen in heaven your dwelling place, and when you hear, forgive.”

  • So the temple was a place where prayers would be heard and answered, even really difficult prayers, as the examples that Solomon gives after this verse indicate.
  • And it is a place where God would hear their confession and forgive their sins, so that their prayers could be heard and answered.

And notice that Jesus talks about these two things in our verses – effective prayer and forgiveness. So Jesus is teaching his disciples to be the new temple, the new house of prayer.

Finally, the kind of prayers that are being talked about in our verses is made clear by the fig tree episode. This is not talking about prayers for our own personal needs or wants. 3. These are prayers in the service of doing God’s kingdom work. Jesus’ cursing of the fig tree wasn’t about him. It was a part of his prophetic ministry. And when Jesus teaches his disciples how to do this, it’s not for their personal needs. It’s for the sake of their calling to represent God and to do God’s work.

[This prayer teaching also shows up in John, where this is made clear in how Jesus says it. For instance in John 15:16 Jesus says, “whatever you ask the Father in my name, he [will] give it to you.” In my name means, in your role representing me and doing the work of the kingdom. See also John 14:13-14; John 15:7; John 16:23-24.]

Alright, let’s look now at –

Mark 11:22-25

Jesus teaches us in these verses two conditions for effective prayer. The first is faith. As he says, “Have faith in God.”

He is saying to the disciples, if you want to do something that you think is impossible, like with this fig tree, you need faith in God, that is, faith that God can do the impossible (Mark 9:23; 10:27).

But also, at a deeper level he’s saying, even with the temple gone, don’t despair, but have faith in God. As he goes on to say, faith is how your prayers will be answered without the temple.

Next comes two parallel statements (see the handout). We will focus on one at a time. “23Truly, I say to you, whoever says to this mountain, ‘Be taken up and thrown into the sea,’ and does not doubt in his heart, but believes that what he says will come to pass, it will be done for him.”

[This is an example of an authoritative prayer command, like what Jesus did with the fig tree. It is a kind of prayer, but instead of asking and then waiting, you just say what God wants to happen and it happens.]

“Truly, I say to you” indicates that this is a really important statement. 

The phrase, “Whoever says to this mountain, ‘Be taken up and cast into the sea’” is a proverb that has to do with “the impossible.” Jesus uses it, or one like it in several places. [Matthew 17:20, Matthew 21:21-22, Luke17:6 and also 1 Corinthians 13:2.] It is, after all, impossible to speak to a mountain and have it move from one place to another. Only God can do something like this.

[It is possible that this is an additional reference to the temple, with “this mountain” referring to the temple mount being judged by being thrown into the sea, which represents evil, chaos, and also the nations, or the Gentiles.]

We also see in this verse a further elaboration on what  “faith in God” is about. It means:

  • don’t doubt in your heart; don’t be of two minds, “yes, God can do it; no, God can’t do it.” As James says, don’t be like “a wave of the sea that is driven and tossed by the wind” (1:6) going  back and forth.
  • rather, believe that it will come to pass. Be fully convinced that God can do what he says he can do, as Paul says in Romans 4:21.

The promise is, if you have faith, “it will be done for” you. Like with the fig tree, even if it is something that seems impossible, if you have faith, it will be done for you.

Next comes the parallel to v. 23. “24Therefore I tell you, whatever you ask in prayer, believe that you have received it, and it will be yours.”

Unfortunately this verse is often misunderstood. The first issue has to do with the word, “whatever.” Does this mean that God will give me whatever I want??? Some teachers have taken this and run with it, for sure.

But we know from other scriptures that God doesn’t give us whatever we want (1 John 5:14-15; James 4:3). Prayer is subject to God’s will. [This is evident in Mark as well. For, not too long before our story, in 10:35 James and John ask Jesus, “we want you to do whatever we ask of you.” But Jesus can’t grant their request to be exalted, because this is subject to God’s will – v. 40. Also, in the garden of Gethsemane, even though Jesus notes that all things are possible for God, when he asks for another way than the cross, he submits his request to God’s will, “yet not what I will, but what you will” – Mark 14:36.]

Otherwise we are dealing, not with prayer, but with magic – where if I can talk myself into thinking that my request will happen, my faith compels God to give me whatever I want. 

And we have already seen that in context these are prayers in the service of representing God and doing his kingdom work, not asking for our own desires.

The meaning of “whatever” is not whatever I want. It is even what seems impossible. In other words, on a scale of things that seem really easy to ask for, and things that seem impossible, like the fig tree – even the latter. Even something impossible, like moving a mountain, which is the parallel statement to “whatever” in v. 23. Even something really hard, despite that the temple will be gone, the place to get really difficult requests answered.

It means even the really difficult requests  we pray for as we represent God and do his kingdom work on this earth.

So the lesson is the same as in v. 23. In the course of doing God’ work, whatever God’s will is for us to do, even if it’s something that seems impossible, if you have faith, it will be yours.

One other note on this verse. The phrase, “believe that you have received it” can be misunderstood. The past tense here is sometimes taken to mean that God has already answered the prayer, but there is no evidence for it. So that there is a split between reality and what we say by faith.

Let’s use Abraham and Sarah as an example. They were promised a child. But their faith didn’t manifest itself by saying that Sarah was pregnant when she wasn’t. They didn’t try to speak it into existence – “we claim that she is pregnant by faith.” No they knew when she wasn’t pregnant and when she was. They were in touch with reality.

No, the past tense here doesn’t mean that it is already a reality, it means that your request has been heard and granted – even before it is a reality. It is what’s called a “prophetic perfect tense,” where you are so certain of a future event, that you can speak of it in the past tense. It hasn’t happened yet, but it will! And Abraham was “fully convinced” that God would one day answer (Romans 4:21) (Notice also that the phrase, “it will be yours” is in the future tense. Also notice that Matthew’s parallel, “you will receive” is in the future not the past tense – 21:22.)

Well, not only are the prayers of this new house of prayer conditioned by faith, they are also conditioned by forgiveness.

“25And whenever you stand praying, forgive, if you have anything against anyone, so that your Father also who is in heaven may forgive you your trespasses.”

[Jesus speaks of standing while praying because this was the most common posture for prayer in Judaism at this time.]

Scripture teaches that sin disrupts and destroys our relationship with God, which blocks our prayers from being heard. For instance Isaiah 59:1-2 says, “Behold, the Lord’s hand is not shortened, that it cannot save, or his ear dull, that it cannot hear; but your iniquities have made a separation between you and your God, and your sins have hidden his face from you so that he does not hear.”

And so we need to repent and confess our sins if we want God to hear us and answer us. [In I Kings 8:30ff a central part of God answering prayer is that God forgives our sins.]

But, and this is Jesus’ point, if we don’t give others the same grace and forgiveness that God has given to us, we will no longer receive grace and forgiveness in our lives. [Jesus also talks about this in the Lord’s prayer, Matthew 6:14-15 and Matthew 18:23-35]. Thus our sin will block our ability to have our prayers heard.

So if we want our prayers answered, we have to let go of our resentments, bitterness and anger. 

Let me end with –

An example

We have learned in this passage that when as an individual or as a church we are doing the work God has called us to do, (whether just generally or something that he specifically tells to do), even if it seems impossible to us, like with the fig tree, like moving a mountain – if we have faith and we forgive others God will hear our prayer and answer us. It is assured.

So I want to encourage us to put this into practice. Let’s pray that God will powerfully transform lives here with the gospel. This is God’s will. This is God’s kingdom work. This is our call.

God wants to work through us to bring about his will. This is how prayer works. We are not to be passive and resigned, but rather active allowing God to work through us to bring about God’s will.

And so let’s pray for this with bold faith. Do you think that God can do this? Is it possible? Do you think that he can do more of this through us – reaching out into the lives of unbelievers? And those that have real problems? Can God transform them? Can he use us to do this?

And let’s pray for this as we extend grace and forgiveness to others. And God will do it.

William Higgins 

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We are back in Mark 11 today looking at how Jesus symbolically indicates that the temple in Jerusalem is to be destroyed. And we are especially interested in how this helps us to understand Jesus’ very important teaching on faith and prayer in Mark 11:22-25, which will be our focus next week.

Last time we saw that Jesus’ temple demonstration in Mark 11:15-19, which brought everything to a halt in the court of Gentiles, foreshadows that it all will stop soon because it will be judged and destroyed. This brings us to Jesus’ second symbolic indication that the temple will be destroyed –

The cursing of the fig tree

This is the last miracle recorded in Mark, and it is the only destructive miracle in all of the gospels.

“12On the following day, when they came from Bethany, he was hungry. 13And seeing in the distance a fig tree in leaf, he went to see if he could find anything on it. When he came to it, he found nothing but leaves, for it was not the season for figs. 14And he said to it, ‘May no one ever eat fruit from you again.’ And his disciples heard it.”

Jesus is hungry and he sees a fig tree. So he goes to see if it has something to eat. But it doesn’t, so he curses it. But then Mark tells us that this was not the season for figs. So . . . what’s going on here? Is Jesus unnecessarily angry? Surely he knows when fig trees have fruit!

Two things help us to understand this story. First, Jesus was most likely looking for the early, immature fruit that, while not necessarily tasty, could be eaten. Fig trees first developed these in the Spring, which is the time frame of our story, and then they produced the leaves. And then the fruit matured in the Summer.

So the tree had leaves. This is emphasized in the story by mentioning it twice. It was advertising, as it were, that it had something to give, which would mature later into something really good. But it had nothing. It was a barren tree.

When Mark says, “it was not the season for figs” he most likely means for ripe figs, perhaps anticipating confusion by some readers (although causing confusion for others).

A second thing we need to understand this story is that in the Old Testament the fig tree was used as a symbol for Israel (e.g. Hosea 9:4). And the lack of fruit on a fig tree means a lack of obedience on the part of Israel and coming judgment. For instance, when Jeremiah uses the phrase, there are “no figs on the fig tree,” it indicates Israel’s disobedience and coming judgment (8:13). When Micah says that there was “no first-ripe fig that my soul desires,” he is saying that there were no longer any righteous ones in Israel (7:1). Jesus, himself, also equates a lack of fruit on a fig tree with a lack of repentance among the people of his day in Luke 13:6-9.

In this light, Jesus is symbolically looking for fruit from Israel, even immature fruit, some sign that there is obedience to God, some acceptance of his Messiah. But he finds none, and therefore judgment is coming. (This may well be symbolically enacting what had just taken place when Jesus entered Jerusalem and then went to the temple and looked around and left. They paid no attention to him or that their Messiah had come.) And, as we will see in just a minute, specifically the temple will be destroyed.

The result of Jesus’ words of judgment is quite amazing. “20As they passed by in the morning, they saw the fig tree withered away to its roots. 21And Peter remembered and said to him, ‘Rabbi, look! The fig tree that you cursed has withered.’” The tree is completely dead, “withered away to its roots.” And Peter and the rest are amazed.

So for those who are in the know, this is a picture of what is to come on Israel/the temple. As Jesus said when he moved from symbolic action to plain speech in Mark 13:2. Talking about the temple he said, “There will not be left here one stone upon another that will not be thrown down.” And this is, exactly what happened 40 years later when the temple was destroyed.

The fig tree as the temple

Now perhaps you have noticed that in Matthew 21 things happen a little differently: First come the temple story, and then we have the fig tree story. But in Mark 11, as we have seen, the chronology is different:

  1. Fig tree story pt. one
  2. Temple story
  3. Fig tree story pt. two

The temple story is put right in the middle of the fig tree story.

This was a common literary technique in the ancient world [intercalation]. Mark does this on a number of occasions. He rearranges things to make a point. [This reminds us that just as ancient biographers held the freedom to work with what their subjects said and to arrange their actions non-chronologically in presenting their portraits, so did the gospel writers.]

The idea is that we are to read these two stories in relation to one another. They interpret one another. In terms of Jesus’ temple demonstration, read in the light of the fig tree story, the idea is that Jesus found no fruit in the temple and so it will be judged (he is not trying to cleanse or reform it). In terms of the fig tree story, read in light of the temple demonstration, the tree is specifically connected to Israel’s temple. Mark is helping us out here; giving us a heads up.

The end of the old temple

So now we have two prophetic, symbolic pictures of the end of the Jerusalem temple:

  • It will be destroyed, like the fig tree withered away to its roots
  • It will cease to function, like when Jesus brought the sacrifices, temple tax and all activity to a halt in a section of the court of the Gentiles.

But this isn’t the end of the story, because –

Jesus is building a new temple

There are a number of indications of this in the New Testament. [Read typologically both 2 Samuel 7:12-13 and Zechariah 6:12-13 can be seen to indicate that the Messiah, David’s son will build a temple]

First of all, in Mark 14:58 some testified at his trial, “We heard him say, ‘I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another, not made with hands.’” Mark calls this false testimony because they are taking his words as a literal threat that Jesus would humanly destroy the Jerusalem temple. (See also Mark 15:29). But in this saying, he is talking about God destroying the temple, and then his own resurrection as the beginning of a new temple. “I will build another, not made with hands.”

This parallels John 2:19-20 where John tells his story of Jesus’ temple demonstration. In v. 19 Jesus says, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.” In v. 20 John clarifies that, “He was speaking about the temple of his body,” that is, his body being raised from the dead. And as Paul so often says, we are a part of the body of Christ, which is this new temple (1 Corinthians 12:27).

Also, in Mark 12 Jesus tells the parable of the tenets, where he teaches that he will be rejected. But then he says, quoting Psalm 118:22, “the stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone/chief stone” – v. 10. What is this stone a part of? He is talking to the priests and is calling them builders. The implication is that this stone is a part of a new temple.

Psalm 118:22 is certainly taken this way by Paul and Peter. Ephesians 2:19-22 says, “19but you are fellow citizens with the saints and members of the household of God, 20built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone, 21in whom the whole structure, being joined together, grows into a holy temple in the Lord. 22In him you also are being built together into a dwelling place for God by the Spirit.”

And 1 Peter 2:4-5 says, “4As you come to him, a living stone rejected by men but in the sight of God chosen and precious, 5you yourselves like living stones are being built up as a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ.” He goes on to quote Psalm 118:22 more fully.

Both of these passages refer to Psalm 118:22 and then use temple language, reflecting Jesus’ use of this text in Mark 12. Jesus is the chief stone in a new temple building.

And we are God’s temple, if we are joined to Jesus, the chief stone. As Paul asks the Corinthian church in 1 Corinthians 3:16, “Do you not know that you are God’s temple . . . ?” And as he states in 2 Corinthians 6:16, “we are the temple of the living God.”

And although the old temple failed, as Jesus’ new temple –

We are to be “a house of prayer”

This is the challenge for us today. We need to learn to live into this calling and identity. This is who we are and this is how we are to be as the church – a place where all can come and offer up acceptable and powerful worship and prayer to God. The old temple  is gone, but we have been made into a new one in Jesus.

And the fact that we are to be “a house of prayer” is one reason why Jesus goes on in Mark 11:22-25 to talk about faith and prayer, which we will look at next week. I would like to end today by reading this passage:

“22Have faith in God. 23Truly, I say to you, whoever says to this mountain, ‘Be taken up and thrown into the sea,’ and does not doubt in his heart, but believes that what he says will come to pass, it will be done for him. 24Therefore I tell you, whatever you ask in prayer, believe that you have received it, and it will be yours. 25And whenever you stand praying, forgive, if you have anything against anyone, so that your Father also who is in heaven may forgive you your trespasses.”

I invite you to ponder this passage for next week.

William Higgins 

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This is really a three-part sermon. My aim is to get to Mark 11:22-25, a very profound and rich teaching on prayer. But to understand these verses we need to understand the context in which they come, that is, after two stories that signify the end of the temple, God’s house of prayer.

So today we look at the first of these stories, when Jesus made a scene in the temple, found in Mark 11:15-19. And the plan is next week to look at the second one, the cursing of the fig tree, which comes right before and after this temple story. And then we will look at prayer in vs. 22-25.

We begin with –

Jesus’ prophetic act in the temple

– which is a sign of the temple’s destruction. “15And they came to Jerusalem. And he entered the temple . . .” During his final week, Jesus and his disciples stayed at night in Bethany, and then went into the city during the day. His destination on this day was the temple in Jerusalem.

The temple consisted of the main building with a court just around it for Israelite men, and then beyond this a court for Israelite women and then beyond this, a court for the Gentiles. The latter court is where our story takes place. The entire temple mount complex was 35 acres of land, most of which was the court of the Gentiles.

“. . . and [he] began to drive out those who sold and those who bought in the temple, and he overturned the tables of the money-changers and the seats of those who sold pigeons. 16And he would not allow anyone to carry anything through the temple.” So in this huge area 1) Animals were being sold for sacrifice. The phrase, “those who sold and those who bought” probably has reference to various sacrificial animals (John 2:14). Those who sold pigeons are specifically mentioned. These were usually sacrifices for the poor.

2. Money was being exchanged to pay the temple tax (Exodus 30:13-16). Every adult male had to do this once a year. This is what supported the temple system. And as a part of this you had to exchange your foreign currency into the acceptable currency for the temple in that day (the Tyrian shekel, made of silver).

So this would have been really a large middle eastern bazaar/ marketplace with people making deals on animals and advertising various exchange rates for the temple tax. It would have been chaotic at a normal time of year, but with all the pilgrims in the city to celebrate Passover it must have been quite a site. According to one record, in 66 AD, just 36 years after this a quarter of a million lambs were sacrificed for Passover. That’s a lot of business going on.

Now given the size of the court of the Gentiles, and the fact that the Roman or Temple soldiers didn’t get involved, what Jesus did must have been fairly small-scale and symbolic. But this is all he needed. He brought that particular part of the temple to a standstill. People couldn’t get their sacrifices, and by turning over the money tables, the system of temple support was stopped. And Mark also tells us that “he would not allow anyone to carry anything through the temple” – v. 16.

In the area of the court of the Gentiles that he was in he brought everything to a halt. His point is to symbolize that soon all of this will stop. There will be no temple and thus no need for sacrifices and no need for a temple tax system. So his action here is a foreshadowing of the destruction of the temple. Something he explicitly predicts in other places (e.g. Mark 13:2). But here we are dealing with prophetic symbolism.

Jesus’ explanation. “17And he was teaching them and saying to them, ‘Is it not written, ‘My house shall be called a house of prayer for all the nations’? But you have made it ‘a den of robbers.’”

First he quotes Isaiah 56:7 – “my house shall be called a house of prayer for all the nations.” This text points out the purpose of the temple, offering up prayers to God. Jesus knew that it was necessary that sacrifices be bought and sold and that money be exchanged to pay taxes for the temple to work. But he strongly objects to this taking place in the temple precincts. And there is some evidence that this was a new practice. This was an inappropriate use of the temple and no doubt would have hindered those seeking to pray and worship, especially Gentiles since this was going on in their court.

The phrase “den of robbers” comes from Jeremiah 7:11. In this passage, Jeremiah is predicting the destruction of the first temple because of the sin of the people. They thought that just because they had a temple and came to it that they would be safe. This is why the phrase “den of robbers” or “criminals” was used. The temple was full of people who were criminals against God and others, using it for shelter as it were. Jesus is likening the people of his day to the unfaithful generation of Jeremiah’s day.

Jesus takes these two verses and sets up a contrast: The temple is supposed to be a house of prayer but it has become a safe-house for criminals – a place where people who don’t do God’s will gather. And their treating the temple like a marketplace is one indicator of their sin.

[Is Jesus also talking about economic exploitation – too much money being charged for sacrifices, too high of an exchange rate on the money? These things did take place and were complained about. But in Jeremiah the “den of robbers” doesn’t focus on economic exploitation, but on various evils – stealing, murder, adultery and idol worship. Also, Jesus is speaking not just to the sellers, but also to the buyers.]

[It is possible that Zechariah 14:21 is behind Jesus’ temple action. Isaiah 56:7 speaks specifically of what the temple is to be, future tense. Zechariah mentions also that “there shall no longer be a trader in the house of the Lord of Hosts on that day.” Perhaps when Jesus came to Jerusalem the problem is that they do not recognize the time of their visitation by the Messiah – Luke 19:41-44 (spoken just before the temple demonstration). The leaders in Jerusalem did not receive him. And so they did not act in accordance with the prophecy of Zechariah. It is a sign of their rejection of his Messianic claims.]

The reaction of the authorities to all this was to come up with a plan for Jesus’ destruction. Notice the symmetry. He indicates that the temple will be destroyed, and they plan to destroy him. “18And the chief priests and the scribes heard it and were seeking a way to destroy him, for they feared him, because all the crowd was astonished at his teaching.”

They most likely would have understood his symbolic action. And they would certainly have understood his criticism of them since they would have authorized the commercialization of the temple. And they would have understood his reference to Jeremiah 7:11 as an indicator that judgment and destruction was coming on the temple. And so they are afraid that he might win over the crowd so that they turn on them.

Their solution was to find a way to murder him, thus confirming Jesus’ estimation of them also as “robbers” or criminals.

“19And when evening came they went out of the city.” Jesus and his disciples went quietly back to Bethany for the night.

This was a very dramatic, high-charged encounter between Jesus and the temple authorities. And it is certainly a key part of why Jesus was eventually arrested and killed by them. And Jesus knew this going in.

Let’s end by looking at –

Some things we learn from this story

I would highlight two things for now. 1. The dire consequences of sin. I think it is hard for us to understand the importance of the temple. We live in a day and place where temples like this don’t exist anymore. But this was not only an astounding building complex, renowned in the ancient world, it had God’s name on it, and was at the center of the faith and life of the people of God.

Yet despite this, and its value, because of the sin of the people it will be destroyed. Just as before, when the first temple was destroyed – despite the people believing that God would never do that – Jesus is saying, it will happen again. And sure enough within a generation of this, this temple was destroyed by the Romans.

God doesn’t say, “well they have rebelled against me and sinned, but I won’t do anything because the consequences would be too devastating. No. Even though it causes great disruption, pain, suffering, chaos damage to the people of God, and damage to God’s name – we will reap what we sow, and our sin will find us out, and we will be judged. Don’t think that God will not act just to spare you, or his people these things.

2. Jesus’ great authority is demonstrated in this story. Again, the temple was the absolute center of the life of the people. It was the place where God’s presence was made known and where people could come to maintain their relationship with God.

And, although he quotes the Scriptures regarding the destruction of the first temple, it is he himself who gives the verdict that this temple will be destroyed. Not a thus says the Lord, not a fulfillment of prophesy, but this is what I say. He saw the sin and pronounced the judgment.

Just after this, the priests asked him, “by what authority are you doing these things?” Mark 11:28. Well, the answer is by the authority that he has God’s Son. He has authority over all things, including whether the temple survives or not.

Next time we will look at the cursing of the fig tree and New Testament teaching on the new temple.

William Higgins

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